It is clear that after the collapsing of the Soviet Union, countries of the area of Central Asia started the process of becoming independent. The countries of the region, taking into account their national interests, declared political independence and chose a certain political system for further development. The Republic of Tajikistan as a post-Soviet country declared its state independence on September 9, 1991.
It should be noted that the process of declaring the political independence of the Republic of Tajikistan differs from other countries in the region. The main factor in this difference was the complication of the internal situation, the manifestation of different groups of power, and as a result, the involvement of the country in the civil war. It is known from the political history of Tajikistan that the civil war involved all spheres of society in a deep crisis and aggravated the problem. The murder of more than 150 thousand people, the refugee of about one million people, orphans, more than 400 thousand children and the destruction of cities and districts was one of the negative consequences of the civil war, hindered the development of public spheres.
It should be noted that despite these existing difficulties, the Republic of Tajikistan in the short term was able to establish the foundations of national statehood, restore the political system and ensure peace and unity. Now, when the Republic of Tajikistan is on the eve of the celebration of the 30th anniversary of state independence, it is important to determine a specific view of the process of this stage of statehood, to determine the problems and prospects for the development of the state. Before expressing a scientific and real opinion about the achievements of 30 years of independence, it is important to state three points about the basics and fundamental prerequisites for the form of these achievements.
The first point is to ensure that the Republic of Tajikistan was the announcement of political independence of an important framework to determine the way to further development. Political science has proven that independence has a profound impact on the protection of values and on the future destiny of nations. It is political independence that allows you to determine your own destiny, shape national policy within the framework of national values and interests, and most importantly, shape the modern image of the nation-state.
Another point is that the protection of the state in a complex and crisis process is the main factor in the existence of the Tajik people of the time and statehood. That is, the Tajik nation was able to protect such difficult conditions of the civil war, as the main institution of the life of society and the state. In this regard, it is enough to note that the desired existence and development of society depend on the state. If implemented, the State can form other institutions within the framework of these borders. Even the Institute of National Interests and the security system of one nation have an indissoluble dependence on the state institution. So, the defense and defense of the state in the process of the imposed civil war was the greatest achievement of history and the most important of the most important relations of the Tajik nation.
The third point is that along with the declaration of political independence and the protection of the state, the establishment of peace, stability and the inclusion of national unity, they are the most important fundamental factors for the Republic of Tajikistan. Political histories and the experience of national statehood have proved that the most important national aspirations are realized on the basis of the existence, political stability and stability of the State. National unity gave the opportunity and conditions to solve the existing problems of society, to realize important national goals and, most importantly, to strengthen and multiply the national statehood.
So these three important fundamental propositions were that all the poetry of society was associated with them, and today the achievements of Tajikistan depend on them.
It is also necessary to preserve the 30 years of independence of Tajikistan and note the important achievements of this stage and the prospects for the development of the country.
1. The manifestation of political leadership and governance. Within the framework of political science, researchers sought to cover the development process and the system of ensuring the political stability of the state to various factors. In this process, special attention is paid to the statement of the director and the personality of the manager himself. If the people and nations have made a significant contribution to the formation of the state, then the role of the leader in the further development and maintenance of the state is very great. It should be noted that this approach to questions has its own reality. Of course, the process of sustainable development of the state largely depends on the activities of the general political head of state. It is the political chapter, which, through integrative activity, is guided by its wisdom, policy, courage and mentality, that creates a fascinating path to history and gives the state and the nation Great national aspirations and aspirations. The political realities of the Republic of Tajikistan have proved that the process of strengthening political independence, restoring the political system of the state and the entry of the Republic of Tajikistan into the activities of is closely linked to the activities of Emomali Rahmon.
In fact, Emomali Rahmon entered in a policy scene that the Republic of Tajikistan was in a very complex situation. The state government was completely paralyzed and multi-ethnic dominated the society. Many experts are convinced that the continuation of the civil war is likely to disappear from the political map of the world. During this sensitive and difficult period, Emomali Rahmon, with the idea of establishing peace and unity, entered the stage of the leader of the nation with the motto « I give you peace», began his activities. Actually, during the civil war, the issue of restoring peace, unity and accumulation of the Tajik nation was one of the main elements of Emomali Rahmon's work program. It should be noted that the restoration of peace and national unity at the stage of the incitement of extremism in the country and at the same time, the support of unscrupulous forces on the part of foreign powers was a difficult task. Emomali Rahmon's dedication, efforts and valor were a factor in ensuring that national stability and integration were restored in the state and familiarized with national unity. Today, in an atmosphere of stability, integration and unanimous cooperation, the development of the Republic of Tajikistan is the fruit of the peaceful activities of Emomali Rahmon.
Another issue that has developed and stabilized over the course of 30 years of independence is the leadership tool. Today, the political school of the Leader of the Nation operates in the Republic of Tajikistan, which, following this school, has trained dozens of young people who head various industries. So, as a result of the useful work of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan, His Excellency Emomali Rahmon, the imposed civil war ended, Peace and national harmony were restored.
2. The adoption of the Constitution and the formation of the structure of full government of the state. In 1994, the national referendum contributed to the adoption of the Constitution in the Republic of Tajikistan in the formation of thematic political relations of society. The people of Tajikistan, as an integral part of the world community, founded a secular democratic and secular system, pointed to the basis of state-legal relations, choosing the values of a democratic society, pointing to the further development of statehood. This event is specifically specified in article 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan:
«The Republic of Tajikistan shall be a sovereign, democratic, legal, law-based, secular, and unitary state.
The form of governing of the Republic of Tajikistan shall be presidential.
Tajikistan is a social state and provides every person with the conditions for a decent life and free development.»
One important point should be noted that this article 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan reflects the entire content and essence of the process of national statehood. It is the guarantees of this article that illustrate the political landscape of Tajikistan's society.
On this basis, the republic has adopted a number of sectoral laws that play an active role in strengthening political relations.
It should be noted that the highest goals of the Tajik people are embodied in the Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan. Today, it is implemented in practice by the highest goals. In particular, the State of Tajikistan has acquired a certain political structure, a form of government and a specific political regime that guarantees its Constitution.
So, after the adoption of the Constitution, the Republic of Tajikistan chose a unitary (unified) structure, a form of presidential administration and a democratic political regime, during which these three elements led the country to massive political achievements.
3. Development and strengthening of democracy. It was emphasized that the people of Tajikistan personify democracy as the highest value of their Constitution, and regarded its development and strengthening in public practice as the most important national function. The process of democratization in the republic actually took place after the adoption of the Constitution. Today, Tajikistan has an open democratic society and is gradually developing. This is an indisputable reality, which confirms the following facts.
First, the process of democratization was started first with the political system. In accordance with the political principle of democracy in Tajikistan, power was divided into three branches of the executive branch (the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan), the judicial branch (the Supreme Court of the Republic of Tajikistan) and the legislative branch (the Majlisi Oli of the Republic of Tajikistan). These three branches of the supreme government act independently on the basis of their competencies and sectorial commitments, which generally play a major role in the development of a democratic political system. Today, in accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan, the form of government of the state is presidential.
Second, the development of political parties in the country has laid a direct role in strengthening democracy and the efficiency of the government. So, the expansion of political parties in society has contributed to the development of political pluralism. Adoption of the Law of the Republic of Tajikistan» About Political Parties « in 1998 provided a platform for political parties. Today, there are seven republican political parties in the Republic of Tajikistan, including the People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan, the Agrarian Party of Tajikistan, the Democratic Party of Tajikistan, the Party of Economic Reforms of Tajikistan, the Communist Party of Tajikistan, the Socialist Party of Tajikistan, and the Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan, most of which have a course in the country's parliament. For example, according to the results of the parliamentary elections on March 1, 2020, six political parties entered the parliament, which today are directly involved in the process of governing the state.
In addition, political parties in Tajikistan actively participate in the presidential elections and present their worthy candidates.
Third, the availability and operation of the complete electoral system in the country are another evidence of the development of democracy in the country. It should be noted that the electoral regime in Tajikistan functions in two forms: majoritism and modernity. The experience of parliamentary and presidential elections in the country is to testify that an existing electoral system has the role of the national interests.
Of course, all of these achievements that Tajikistan has achieved in the sphere of its domestic policy. Actually these achievements have a great value to a State that has achieved them in a short period, and in the international system, many countries have achieved such achievements in a very long historical period. These were several points during the 30 years of independence about the political and fundamental achievements of the statehood of Tajikistan.
So, the Republic of Tajikistan during 30 years of independence was able to strengthen the foundations of national statehood, develop and strengthen democracy in the country. It is specific interests and the system of national values and to protect the national policy. Based on such events, we can say that the prospects for the development of the state of Tajikistan are positive. Because the country has a political climate, conditions for the development of democracy and, most importantly, the integration of national talents and interests, these situations confirm the highest thoughts.
This material was prepared by the Strategic research Center under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan and the Embassy of the Republic of Tajikistan in the Republic of Azerbaijan.